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E ʻike i nā ʻāpana ʻē aʻe o “Self-Taught Basic Baking” i loko KEIA

“Expanding agents” .. leo ʻakaʻaka.

Akā ʻaʻole maopopo iaʻu pehea e unuhi maikaʻi ai 🙁 Hiki i kekahi ke kōkua mai iaʻu.

I ka wā e pili ana i ka kuke ʻana, pono paha e māhele ʻia i ʻelua mau pūʻulu kumu, e pili ana i nā ʻano nui ʻelua o nā keke, ka berena a me nā pōpō (ʻoiaʻiʻo, ʻaʻole pololei loa kēia māhele, akā ma kahi pae kumu, manaʻo wau e hoʻokaʻawale i kēia ala. e maʻalahi e hoʻomaopopo).

Me ka berena (me nā berena momona, croissant …), ʻo ka mea i hoʻohana ʻia e kōkua i ka piʻi ʻana o ka keke ʻo ia ka hū. No nā keke, ʻo nā mea hoʻohana maʻamau ʻelua ʻo ia ka pauka baking a me ka soda / bicarb. Eia nō naʻe, pono e hoʻohui ʻia ʻaʻole pono nā keke a pau e hoʻohana i ka pauka baking a i ʻole ka paʻakai paʻakai, no ka mea, aia kahi laina ʻokoʻa o nā keke (Foam Cake) e hilinaʻi nei i nā ʻōpū o ka ea i loko o nā hua manu a i ʻole nā ​​hua manu keʻokeʻo e paʻa me ka pono ʻole o ka soda. .i ke kokua ana i ka pauda bakena.

ʻIke e like me ka mōʻaukala o ka hoʻokumu ʻana a me ka hoʻohana ʻana, haku mele, .. o kēlā me kēia ʻano mea hoʻonui, makemake wau e haʻalele, inā makemake ʻoe e aʻo hou, hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻohana iā Google e ʻimi i ka ʻike. Ma ka laulā o kēia ʻatikala, nānā wau i ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana a me ka wehewehe ʻana i kēia mau mea hoʻonui, nā hoʻohana o kēlā me kēia ʻano a pehea e hoʻohana ai.

Nānā:

ʻEkolu ʻano ʻano like ʻole ʻo ka pauka, ka pauka bakena a me ka paʻakai, ʻoi aku ka ʻokoʻa o ka hū me ka pauka paʻakai / paʻakai paʻakai, ʻaʻole hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia ma ke ʻano he pani, no laila i ka hana ʻana, e makaʻala ʻaʻole e huikau i kēia mau mea me kekahi. (Yeast hoʻohana ʻia no ka hana ʻana i ka hapa nui o nā berena, a hoʻohana ʻia ka pauda paʻa a me ka soda baking no ka hana ʻana i nā keke). ka mua.

hū (Yeast) In ʻatikala e pili ana i ka palaoa

ʻO ka manawa hope loa, wehewehe pōkole wau e pili ana i ka Gluten, ka hoʻokumu ʻana o Gluten i ka palaoa i ka wā e kāwili ai a me ke ʻano o ka kuke ʻana a me ka hana ʻana i keke (noodle) mai ka palaoa. ʻOiai he mea koʻikoʻi ka gluten, e pāʻani ana i kahi kuleana nui i ka hoʻokumu ʻana i ka hale no nā keke, akā ʻaʻole lawa ka gluten wale nō. Akā, ʻo Gluten kahi kūlana pono wale nō. Kōkua ʻo Gluten i ka hana ʻana i nā “puka” a me nā “slits” i loko o ka palaoa, a i loko o kēia mau lua he ea ea. I ka wā e kuke ai, hoʻonui kēia mau kinoea, a i ka wā e hālāwai ai ʻo Gluten i ka wela nui, e paʻakikī ia, e hana ana i kahi keke puffy. No hea mai ke kinoea i loko o kēia mau lua? No nā keke e hoʻohana ana i ka hū (berena, ka palaoa Denemaka, …) aia ka panehū (yeast). ʻO ka hū he microorganism hiki ke huna i kekahi mau enzymes e hoʻoikaika i ka fermentation i ka palaoa palaoa. Ma ke ʻano kikoʻī, kōkua ia i ka hoʻololi ʻana i kekahi mau mea i loko o ka keke e hana i ka waiʻona a me ke kinoea kalapona (He wehewehe kemika kēia, akā ʻo ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, i koʻu wā i ke kula, ʻo wau ka mea ʻino loa i ka Chemistry, no laila hiki iaʻu ke wehewehe i kēia mamao 😛

). E mahuka ka waiʻona i ka wā o ka kuke ʻana a me ka hana ʻana, a mālama ʻia ke kalapona e ka gluten, a ua wehewehe ʻia ka mea e hiki mai ana ma luna. No ka mea, he microorganism ola ka hū, “he”pane i ka mahana

  • kiko’ī: 0-14 degere Celsius:
  • ʻAneʻane ʻole ka hū (0-1 degere Celsius ka mahana o ka waiho ʻana o ka hū) 15-20 degere Celsius:
  • He anu loa, no laila nāwaliwali loa a lohi ka hana20 – 37 degere Celsius
  • : wela kūpono, ʻeleu loa38-59 degere Celsius
  • : wela loa no laila ua lohi ka hopena60 degere Celsius a ʻoi aku paha
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: hū “mohai”

No ka hana o ka hū e like me ia mahana, i ka wā e kāwili ai a hoʻomoʻa i ka palaoa, e kōkua ka mahana kūpono i ka palaoa e piʻi koke a maikaʻi, i ʻole e keʻakeʻa ka wela kūpono ʻole i ka hana ʻana a hiki i ka make. ʻO kēia kaʻu e kamaʻilio kikoʻī ma ka ʻatikala e pili ana i ka berena. I ka kuke ʻana, ʻae 3 ʻano hū maʻamau

  1. e:hū hou / hū paʻa
  2. : pulu, poloka, waiho i loko o ka pahu hau. Hoʻohana pinepine ka poʻe kahu ʻai i kēia hū, wahi a ka puke, akā inā hiki iaʻu ke loaʻa, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka hū hou, akā paʻakikī loa ka mālama ʻana, a pono e hoʻohana ʻia no ka manawa pōkole, ʻoiai ka maʻamau o ka hū hou. nui loa, mai 300-500 grams.He hū maloʻo ikaika : nā granules koʻikoʻi, nui, ʻeleʻele, ke hoʻohana ʻia kēia hū pono Pono e ho’ā i ka hū ma mua o ka hoʻohana ʻana, ma ka hui ʻana i ka hū me ka wai mahana (32 – 38 degere Celsius). Lawe ʻia kēia nui wai mai kahi ʻāpana o ka wai (waiu waiu…)
  3. i hoʻokomo ʻia i loko o ke ʻano.hū koke (hū koke/ hiki koke/ hiki wawe ka hū)

: he hū maloʻo hoʻi, ka palaoa maikaʻi, ke kala ʻeleʻele. ʻAʻole pono e hoʻāla ʻia ka hū koke, hiki ke hui pū ʻia me ka palaoa. ʻOi aku ka nui o ka hū hikiwawe ma mua o ka hū maloʻo, no laila me ka nui like o ka palaoa, pono ʻole ka hū koke ma mua o ka hū maloʻo.

hū hou a me ka hū maloʻoLaki hoʻololi ma waena o nā ʻano oʻu n, e hoʻohana ma kahi o (ratio mai ka puke

  • ʻOihana Baking) Ka nui kanaka hū hou me 0.5 e kiʻi i ka nui hū maloʻo
  • mea like. No ka laʻana, pono ka mea ʻai i 10 grams o ka hū hou, a inā ʻoe e hoʻololi iā ia me ka hū maloʻo, ʻo ka nui o ka hū āu e pono ai he 10 x 0.5 = 5 grams. Ka nui kanaka hū hou me 0.35 e loaʻa ai ka nui hū koke
  • mea like. No ka laʻana, pono ka mea ʻai i 10 grams o ka hū hou, inā ʻoe e hoʻololi iā ia me ka hū koke. ʻO ka nui o ka hū e pono ai he 10 x 0.35 = 3.5 grams Inā e like me ka mea i luna ‘elua formula, laila ka hoʻololi lākiō hū maloʻo: hū koke

ʻo ia: 1 gram maloʻo hū = 0.7 grama koke hū ʻO kekahi mau memo maʻamau me ka hū

  • e:
  • ʻO ka mahana kūpono (e like me “hōʻike ʻia” ma luna)
  • Mai hoʻohana i ka hū i pau (no ka mea, ua make paha ka hū).

Makemake nā kāne e pāʻani me ke kō a makemake e hakakā me ka paʻakai (a hakakā pinepine kekahi i kekahi). No laila, i ka wā e hoʻoulu ai i ka hū, e kōkua ka hū liʻiliʻi i ka hana hū, akā inā hui ka hū i ka paʻakai, ʻaʻohe pono e hoʻokomo i loko o ka wai, hui wale ma ke ākea, a laila hiki ke kaua, no laila ke hui pū ʻia. E hui mua ʻia ka paila palaoa me ka paʻakai a laila e hoʻokomo i kekahi.

Aia kekahi mau moʻolelo ʻē aʻe e pili ana i ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka hū i ka wā e hana ai i ka berena, a e kākau wau ma ka ʻatikala e pili ana i ka hana ʻana i ka berena.

2. ʻO ka pauka Baking/baking powder a me ka Baking soda/bicarb

Inā he microorganism ka hū e kōkua i ka hana ʻana i ke kinoea no ka piʻi ʻana o ka berena, a laila ʻelua mau mea kemika e hiki ke hoʻohua i ka pōpō palaoa a me ka soda baking. No laila he aha nā hiʻohiʻona o kēia mau ʻano ʻelua, pehea ke ʻano like a me ka ʻokoʻa, hiki ke hoʻohana like ʻia?

2.1. Baking soda (Baking soda) ʻO ka paʻakai (baking soda a i ʻole bicarbonate) ke hoʻopili ʻia me nā mea waikawa e kōkua i ka hana ʻana i CO2. ʻO nā mea acidic i hoʻohana mau ʻia i ka kuke ʻana:meli, molasses (molasses), maple syrup, brown sugar, wai huaʻai, pata waiu, kilika ʻawaʻawa, yogurt, koko, kokoleka

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. No laila, i loko o nā mea hoʻomaʻamaʻa e hoʻohana ana i kēia mau meaʻai, hoʻohana pinepine ʻia ka soda baking e kōkua i ka neutralize i ka waikawa. ʻO ka CO2 i hana ʻia mai ka hopena ma waena o Bicarb a me nā mea ʻawaʻawa e hoʻoheheʻe ʻia a puka koke i waho o ka palaoa. No laila, no nā keke e hoʻohana ana i ka soda baking, ma hope o ka hui ʻana i ka palaoa (ʻo ia hoʻi, ma hope o ka hui ʻana o ka soda baking me ka wai, ka waiū ..) pono e hoʻomoʻa koke ʻia, i ʻole e puka i waho kēia mau mahu => pua maikaʻi ʻole ka keke. ʻaʻole mohala iki.

  • Ma waho aʻe o ka hoʻohana ʻia ʻana i ka kuke ʻana, he nui nā mea hoʻohana ʻē aʻe o ka baking soda, e like me:
  • Ke stewing beans, kaʻiʻo me ka nui veins, pono e simmer no ka manawa lōʻihi, he uuku baking soda e kōkua i kēia mau meaʻai palupalu wikiwiki, hoemi i ka manawa o ka simmering a me ka stewing.
  • Hoʻohana ʻia ʻo Baking soda e hoʻopau i ka ʻakika, hoʻōla i ka ʻeha o ka ʻōpū

Kōkua i ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻana i nā stains ma nā mea hana i loko o ka lumi lumi a i ʻole ka lumi kuke

2.2. ʻO ka pauka paʻa

Ma ke ʻano o nā mea hoʻohui, ʻo ka pauka bakena ka paʻakai a me ka nui o ka waika e launa pū me ka soda baking, me ka hoʻohui ʻana i kahi starch hou aʻe. Ma muli o ka ʻakika, hiki ke hoʻohana maʻalahi ka pauda bakena ma mua o ka paʻakai paʻakai (no ka laʻana, i loko o nā meaʻai kahi i loaʻa ʻole ai nā mea ʻakika i loko o nā meaʻai e like me luna, e hoʻohana i ka pauda baking, ʻaʻole i ka soda baking). .

  1. ʻO kekahi mau ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo i ka wā e hoʻohana ai i ka pauka baking a me ka soda baking:E hahai i ka huina kiko’ī i hōʻike ʻia ma ka papa kuhikuhi
  2. Inā hoʻohui ʻoe i ka pauka bakena he nui loa, e hoʻohua mai ia i ka nui o ke kinoea i loko o ka keke => i ka wā e hoʻomoʻa ai, e hoʻonui koke ʻia ka keke me ka loaʻa ʻole o ka manawa e hoʻopaʻa i ke ʻano => ma hope o 1/2 – 2/3 o ka palaoa. ka wā kālua, e hāʻule ka keke . Eia hou, e hoʻohui i ka nui o ka pauka bakena, hiki ke hoʻāʻo i ka paʻakai a ʻawaʻawa paha ka paʻakai. I ka hoʻohana ʻana i kēia mau pauka, e makaʻalakānana a hui maikaʻi
  3. . No ka mea, no ka laʻana, inā paʻa ka palaoa ma kahi hoʻokahi => nui ke kinoea => hoʻoulu i ka lua nui o ka keke, a hiki ke hana i ka ʻono paʻakai.
  4. E like me ka mea i ʻōlelo ʻia ma luna, inā hoʻohana ʻia ka soda baking wale nō, ma hope o ka hui ʻana i ka palaoa, pono e lawe mai i ka keke e hoʻomoʻa i ka hikiwawe loa, i ʻole e hoʻokuʻu maʻalahi ka ea, me ka pua maikaʻi ʻole o ka keke. No ka pauka bakena, he papalua ka hana o na pauka bakena o keia wa, pono ka wela e hooulu ai i ke kinoea a kokua i ka pōpō palaoa e hoonui, no laila hiki ke waiho i ka paila palaoa ma hope o ka hui ‘ana no kekahi mau kakini minuke, a laila kalua ia. o ka nalowale ea. E mālama i kēia mau mea hoʻonui ʻelua ma kahi anuanu, maloʻo a uhi paʻa ʻia, ma kahi mamao o ka ʻike ʻana i ka ea, ʻoi aku ka nui inā e noho ana ma kahi me ka haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa.
  • ʻO ke ala e hoʻāʻo ai e ʻike inā e hana mau ana nā expanders:
  • ʻO ka pauka bakena: E hoʻohui i ka pauka bakena me ka wai wela (ratio: 5 grams o ka pauka bakena: 120ml o ka wai), inā maikaʻi ka pauka bakena, e pohu koke ka hui.
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Baking soda: E hoʻohui i ka soda baking me ka vīnega (ratio: 1-2 grams o ka paʻakai paʻakai: 10ml o ka vīneka), e huhū koke ka paʻakai maikaʻi.

E ho’āʻo i ka pauka bakena E pili ana E hoʻohana ma kahi ma waena o ka pauka baking a me ka soda: Hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻololi i ka soda baking me ka pauka bakena i ka ratio o 1 baking soda = 3 baking powder, akā ʻo ka hope,ʻAʻole hiki iā ʻoe ke pani i ka pauka baking me ka soda

‘O ke kumu, ‘o ka pa’akai pa’akai ka mea ‘akika, i ‘ole, ‘a’ole hiki ke ho’opuka ‘ia ka CO2 e kōkua i ka pi’i ‘ana o ka keke. Aia kahi ala e hoʻohui ai i ka soda baking me ka cream of tartar e pani ai i ka pauka baking, akā manaʻo wau ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka pauka i kūʻai mua ʻia a emi ʻole ka paʻakikī 🙂

3. Ea

ʻAʻole e pua nā keke a pau ma muli o nā mea i luna. E like me kaʻu i ʻōlelo ai ma ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ka ʻatikala, aia kahi laina ʻokoʻa o nā keke (Foam Cake) e mohala nui nei ma muli o nā ʻōhū ea i loko o nā hua i hui ʻia. A ʻaʻole wale ʻo Foam Cake akā hiki nō hoʻi i ka High Fat Cake ke ʻoki i ka mahalo i nā ʻōhū ea i loko o nā hua a me ka pata. kikoʻī– Me ke keke momona kiʻekiʻe (nā keke me ka nui o ka pata a me ka momona)

: i ka hui ana i ka palaoa e like me ke ano Creaming, o ka hahau ana i ka pata me ke ko, e kokua i ka hana ana i na lua ea a paa i ka ea iloko o ka pata, no laila, no keia mau keke, he mea nui e ku’i i ka pata a hiki i ka fluffy. Eia naʻe, no ka mea, ʻo ke ʻano o kēia keke ka nui o ka pata, ka nui o ka palaoa, kaumaha pinepine ka paila palaoa, no laila e hoʻohana ʻia kahi mea kuke liʻiliʻi e kākoʻo ai. Me ka Foam Cake (keke palaoa haʻahaʻa, ka kuke ʻana ma luna o nā ʻōhū ea i loko o nā hua i hui ʻia e like me Sponge Cake, Chiffon, Angel food cake, … a me kekahi mau keke ʻē aʻe e like me Soufflé..

), hui ʻia nā hua (nā yolks holoʻokoʻa a ʻokoʻa paha, keʻokeʻo) me ke kō, e hana ai i nā ʻōhū ea. Me kēia mau keke, hiki i ka hoʻohui ʻana i ka pauda bakena a i ʻole ka paʻakai paʻakai ke loaʻa i kekahi manawa ka hopena ʻē aʻe (e like me ke ʻano o ka hoʻohui ʻana i ka pauda bakena he nui loa e like me ka memo ma ka ʻāpana 2).

4. Palaoa (ammonium carbonate/baking ammonia)

Hoʻohana pinepine ʻia ma ke ʻano he pōpō palaoa, kōkua ia i ka hana ʻana i ka paila palaoa spongy a crispy. No ka inoa mai… ka ʻala o ka pauda. Hoʻohana wale ʻia ka palaoa i loko o nā meaʻai palai no ka mea hiki i ka wela nui o ka momona ke hoʻemi i ka ʻala o kēia palaoa. Paipai ʻia nā wahine hāpai a me nā kamaliʻi ʻaʻole e ʻai i nā huahana i loaʻa i ka fenugreek.

Kuhi ʻia ka ʻike ma ka ʻatikala mai ka puke Professional Baking. Kiʻi mai ka Pūnaewele.

ʻO ka puke kuke ʻo Linh Trang

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